Feminization of Agriculture in India: Causes & Impacts


Agriculture has long been considered the backbone of the Indian economy, providing employment and sustenance to a significant portion of the population. Traditionally, the sector has been dominated by men, with women’s contributions largely unrecognized and undervalued.

However, in recent years, a notable shift has occurred with the emergence of the “feminization of agriculture,” a phenomenon that highlights the increasing involvement of women in agricultural activities. This article explores the significance of this trend, its implications for rural India, and the need to empower women in the agricultural sector.

What is the Feminization of Agriculture?

The feminization of agriculture refers to the increasing participation and involvement of women in agricultural activities, challenging traditional gender roles. It signifies a shift from agriculture being predominantly male-dominated to women taking on roles in farming, livestock rearing, agribusiness, and entrepreneurial endeavors.

This trend is influenced by economic changes, advancements in technology, and improved access to resources, and it holds implications for women’s empowerment, economic development, and food security.

  • 33.7% of rural males migrate in search of better employment and economic prospects according to the 2011 census.
  • The migration trend has led to the feminization of the agriculture sector, with increased participation of women in agriculture and related activities.
  • It is important to prioritize women in India’s policy initiatives in response to this shift.
  • Policies should be formulated to address the specific needs, challenges, and aspirations of women in agriculture.
  • Measures to support women in agriculture may include improved access to credit facilities, land ownership rights, training programs, and the adoption of technologies that enhance their involvement and productivity.

Causes of Feminization of Agriculture in India

The feminization of Indian agriculture, or the increasing participation of women in agricultural activities, can be attributed to several causes. Some of the main causes of the feminization of Indian agriculture are:

  1. Gender-Division of Work: Traditional gender roles and stereotypes have led to the division of work, with certain jobs and tasks being typified as women’s work. Women are often seen as more willing to accept low-paid irregular work, which makes them easily hireable and fireable. These stereotypes perpetuate the idea that women are docile and hardworking, making them more likely to be engaged in agriculture and allied activities.
  2. Social Mobility and Migration – Reserved for Males: Social mobility opportunities, such as education and employment, have historically been reserved for males in many societies. Men are often perceived as breadwinners and are given more educational opportunities, making them more suitable for physical labor and non-agricultural jobs. This results in a higher likelihood of males migrating from rural to urban areas in search of better employment prospects, leaving women to take on agricultural responsibilities and household chores.
  3. Poverty: Economic factors play a significant role in the feminization of agriculture. Poverty pushes women to seek employment as agricultural laborers or engage in domestic work to supplement the family’s income. Limited economic opportunities in rural areas and the need to support their families drive women to participate in agriculture and allied activities.
  4. Access to Resources and Education: Historically, women have faced limited access to resources such as credit facilities, land ownership, and education. However, with increasing awareness and changing social norms, there has been a gradual improvement in women’s access to resources. As women gain better access to resources and education, they are more likely to engage in agriculture and related activities.

Impacts of Feminization of Agriculture on Women


The feminization of agriculture, while bringing certain benefits to women, also has some negative impacts. Here are some additional impacts of the feminization of agriculture on women:

  1. Work Overload: With men migrating in search of better opportunities, women often have to take on multiple roles, including managing household responsibilities and engaging in agricultural work. This increased workload can lead to physical and mental exhaustion, limiting their time for self-care and leisure activities.
  2. Socio-Cultural Isolation: Women who step into traditionally male roles in agriculture may face social stigma and isolation within their communities. Breaking gender norms and taking on these responsibilities can result in discrimination and exclusion, undermining their social connections and support networks.
  3. Insufficient Time for Child Rearing: Balancing work in agriculture and household chores leaves women with limited time for child rearing and nurturing. This can have adverse effects on the quality of care and supervision provided to their children, potentially impacting their development and well-being.
  4. Mental Health Issues: The separation from their spouses due to male migration, coupled with increased household responsibilities, can contribute to mental health issues for women. The lack of companionship, increased stress, and the strain of managing various roles can lead to feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression.
  5. Lack of Recognition and Ownership: Despite their significant contributions to agriculture, women often face challenges in terms of recognition and ownership. They may not have equal access to land ownership and are frequently marginalized in decision-making processes and agricultural institutions. This limits their agency and ability to fully benefit from their work in agriculture.

Also Read: Feminization of Poverty

Way Forward

Moving forward, several approaches can be adopted to address the challenges and promote gender equality in the feminization of agriculture. Here are some key approaches:

Social Security: Establishing a robust social security system is crucial to support women in balancing household responsibilities, child-rearing, and financial burdens while managing agricultural work. This can include provisions for maternity benefits, childcare support, and access to healthcare and social welfare programs.

Farm Ownership for Women: It is important to recognize women as farmers and promote their ownership of agricultural land. This can make them eligible for various schemes, benefits, and financial assistance. Efforts should be made to increase the percentage of women who own land and have secure rights over agricultural resources.


Recognition of Women’s Contribution: Inclusive approaches to agricultural policy implementation should recognize and value the presence and contribution of women in the sector. This includes acknowledging their roles as farmers, agricultural laborers, entrepreneurs, and decision-makers. Improved extension services and tailored training programs for women can address gender disparities and enhance their skills and knowledge.

Gender Budgeting: Adopting gender-sensitive approaches in the formulation of legislation, programs, and schemes is crucial. Gender budgeting ensures that resources are allocated in a way that benefits both men and women equitably. It can help identify and address gender gaps in access to resources, services, and opportunities in the agricultural sector.

Inclusion of Local Women at the Planning Stage: Women working in agriculture possess valuable knowledge about their local geography, land topography, and farming practices. Including women in the planning stages of agricultural projects and development plans ensures that their perspectives, needs, and priorities are taken into account. It promotes equity, inclusivity, and sustainable development.

By adopting these approaches, policymakers, organizations, and communities can work towards creating an enabling environment that empowers women in agriculture, ensures their rights and ownership, and fosters gender equality in the sector. It requires collaborative efforts, targeted interventions, and a commitment to transforming social norms and structures to build a more inclusive and sustainable agricultural sector.

Government Initiatives

Government initiatives in India specifically focused on women’s empowerment in agriculture:

  1. Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)
  2. Stree Shakti Package for Women Entrepreneurs
  3. National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) – Women Self-Help Group (SHG) Component
  4. STEP (Support to Training and Employment Program for Women)
  5. Mahila Coir Yojana
  6. Priyadarshini Scheme for Women Organic Farmers
  7. Mahila E-Haat
  8. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
  9. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme
  10. Ujjwala Yojana – Free LPG Connection Scheme for Women



The feminization of agriculture represents a significant shift in the traditional landscape of Indian agriculture. Women’s increased participation in farming not only benefits individual households but also contributes to rural development, food security, and gender equality. Recognizing and valuing women’s contributions in the agricultural sector is crucial for achieving sustainable and inclusive growth in rural India.

It is imperative for policymakers, stakeholders, and society as a whole to support and empower women in agriculture by providing them with equal opportunities, resources, and an enabling environment. By doing so, we can harness the full potential of women as agents of change and secure a brighter and more prosperous future for rural India.

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