Fazal Ali Commission: Recommendations & Members

The Fazal Ali Commission, officially known as the First States Reorganisation Commission, was a landmark initiative in the history of India, aimed at reorganizing the states on linguistic and administrative lines. It was constituted in response to the growing demand for linguistic states in post-independence India.

This article provides an in-depth analysis of the Fazal Ali Commission, its objectives, recommendations, and its lasting impact on the socio-political landscape of India, with particular relevance for UPSC aspirants seeking a deeper understanding of this pivotal historical event.

Name of the CommissionFazal Ali Commission
ChairmanJustice Fazal Ali
MembersSardar K. M. Panikkar, Hriday Nath Kunzru
Year Established1953
MandateReorganization of States in India
Report SubmissionSeptember 1955
Acceptance of RecommendationsIndian Government accepted with minor changes
Legislative ActsState Reorganisation Act of 1956

Historical Background

The period immediately following India’s independence in 1947 was marked by numerous socio-political challenges, one of which was the issue of state reorganization. The demand for linguistic states gained momentum as various linguistic groups sought recognition and representation.

Before the establishment of the Fazal Ali Commission, several committees were convened to address the issue of state reorganization. Notable among them were the Dhar Committee and the JVP Committee. These committees were tasked with evaluating the feasibility of linguistic reorganization.

However, both the Dhar Committee and the JVP Committee concluded that the concept of linguistic reorganization was not practically viable at the time. Their assessments raised doubts about the feasibility and potential challenges associated with restructuring states on linguistic lines.

Formation of Fazal Ali Commission

The idea was to create states where the majority of the population spoke a common language, thus enabling better governance and administrative efficiency. This compelling need for linguistic states was particularly underscored by the establishment of Andhra Pradesh in 1953, setting a precedent for other regions with similar aspirations.

Members of the Fazal Ali Commission

The Fazal Ali Commission, named after its chairman Justice Fazal Ali, was appointed by the President of India in 1953. It consisted of three members:

  • Justice Fazal Ali
  • Sardar K. M. Panikkar
  • Hriday Nath Kunzru

The commission was tasked with examining and making recommendations regarding the reorganization of states in India.

Recommendations of the Fazal Ali Commission

The Fazal Ali Commission presented its report in September 1955, marking a significant milestone in the process of state reorganization. The commission’s recommendations were pivotal in reshaping the administrative landscape of India, particularly emphasizing language as the foundational criterion for state formation.

  • Linguistic Basis: Advocated language as the primary criterion for state reorganization, recognizing its cultural significance.
  • National Unity and Security: Emphasized the need to preserve the unity and security of the nation while restructuring states.
  • Cultural Homogeneity: Highlighted the importance of shared linguistic and cultural heritage in state formation.
  • Financial and Administrative Considerations: Recommended considering economic viability and administrative efficiency for sustainable state functioning.
  • Welfare at State and National Levels: Prioritized the well-being and development of both individual states and the nation as a whole.
  • Abolition of Four-Fold Classification: Proposed the creation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered territories, aligning boundaries with linguistic identities.
  • Abolition of Rajapramukh and Special Agreements: Advocated eliminating the institution of Rajapramukh and special agreements with former princely states for uniform governance.
  • Repeal of General Control under Article 371: Suggested the repeal of general control by the Government of India, promoting greater state autonomy.

Significance & Impact

  • Rejection of ‘One Language, One State’ Theory: The Fazal Ali Commission played a pivotal role in rejecting the prevailing notion of ‘one language, one state’. Instead, it emphasized the importance of considering India’s overall unity as a paramount factor in any reorganization of political units.
  • Unity as a Primary Consideration: The Commission’s stance placed national unity at the forefront of its recommendations. It recognized that a harmonious and integrated India should be the guiding principle in the restructuring of states.
  • Acceptance of Recommendations: The Indian government acknowledged the significance of the Commission’s recommendations, making only minor alterations. This acceptance demonstrated the government’s commitment to a more inclusive and representative system of governance.
  • Legislative Changes: The State Reorganisation Act of 1956 and the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 were enacted to implement the recommendations of the Fazal Ali Commission. These legislative measures abolished the distinction between Part A and Part B states, as well as Part C states.
  • Merger and Creation of Union Territories: In accordance with the Commission’s recommendations, several states were merged with their neighboring counterparts. Additionally, some regions were designated as union territories, indicating a shift in administrative control.
  • Formation of States and Union Territories: On November 1, 1956, a historic milestone was achieved. Fourteen states and six union territories were officially formed, heralding a new era in India’s political and administrative landscape.

Also Read: Sarkaria Commission


The Fazal Ali Commission played a transformative role in India’s post-independence era. Advocating for linguistic reorganization while prioritizing national unity, it reshaped the nation’s political and administrative landscape.

Accepted with slight modifications, its recommendations led to the creation of states and union territories aligned with linguistic and cultural identities. This enduring influence underscores India’s dedication to unity amid diversity, leaving an indelible mark on its federal structure.

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