Krishnadevaraya was a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire in South India in the 16th century. He is regarded as one of the greatest Indian kings, known for his military conquests, patronage of the arts, and support for literature. He ruled during a period of great prosperity and cultural achievement in the empire, and his reign is regarded as a golden age in South Indian history.
In this article, we will discuss Krishnadevaraya, an influential emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire, focusing on his life, conquests, achievements, death, and the concept of Ashtadiggajas for UPSC Exam preparation.
|Birth Place||Hampi, Karnataka|
|Father Name||Tuluva Narasa Nayaka|
|Krishnadevaraya’s Mother||Nagala Devi|
|Major Enemy||Bahmani Kingdom|
Who was Krishnadevaraya?
Krishnadevaraya was born in Hampi, Karnataka in the house of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka and Nagala Devi. His father Tuluva Narasa Nayaka was the army commander of Narasimha Deva Raya. After the death of Narasimha Deva Raya, Narasa Nayaka established Tuluva Dynasty. Krishnadevaraya was known to be the third king of the Tuluva Dynasty. Further, he sat on the throne on 8 August 1509 and ruled till 1529. The reign of Krishnadevaraya stands out as the high point in the history of the Vijayanagara Empire. Babur in his autobiography wrote that Krishnadevaraya was a great Hindu king.
Wives of Krishnadevaraya:
- Tirumala Devi (Favourite Wife)
- Chinna Devi
Childrens of Krishnadevaraya:
- Tirumala Raya
Titles & Books of Krishnadevaraya
Following are the Titles of Krishnadevaraya for UPSC:
- Karnataka Ratna Simhasana De Eshwara (Lord of the jeweled throne of Karnataka )
- Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana (Lord of the Kannada Empire)
- Andhra Bhoja Yaani (Scholar of Andhra)
- Gaubrahmana Pratipalaka Yaani (Protector of Brahmins and Cows)
Following are the Books written by Krishnadevaraya for UPSC:
Krishnadeva spent his first 10 years on the battlefield and this era was a military success. On occasion, he changed the battle plans abruptly, & turning a losing battle into a victory. He reorganized his army, to defeat the Turks, and appointed troops from different South Indian communities like Morasa, Kabbili, and Tulu.
Enemies of the Vijayanagara Empire
The Gajapatis of Orissa, the Bahmani Sultan, and the Portuguese were his main enemies. However, Bahmani Kingdom was disintegrated into five parts, but they were the biggest enemy. In addition, the Portuguese rose as a Naval power and controlled much of the sea trade. Moreover, Feudal Chiefs, Reddys, and Velamas were also against the Vijayanagara Empire. He defeated all of them and they accepted the suzerainty of the Vijayanagara Empire. So, these were the important enemies of Krishnadevaraya.
Ashtadiggajas of Krishnadevaraya
Telugu poets were regarded as the 8 pillars of his literary assembly, those were known as “Ashtadiggajas”. They were similar to the Navaratnas of Akbar.
Following are the names of Ashtadiggajas:
- Nandi Thimmana
- Pingali Surana Dhurjati
- Madayyagari Mallana
- Ramaraja Bhushanudu
- Tenali Rama Krishna
- Ayyala-raju Rama-Bhadrudu
- Allasani Peddana
Ashtadiggajas means elephants in the eight directions. These poets did not just do the work of speaking words but also used to bring the whole state into shape. For this great respect to Art and Literature, the Rule of Krishnadevaraya is known as the golden age of Telugu literature.
It doesn’t mean that he just promoted only the Telugu language, but some other languages like Kannada, Sanskrit, and, Tamil were also promoted. For example, the Tamil poet, Hariharadasa, and the Sanskrit poet, Lolla Lakshmidhara got royal patronage for Krishnadevaraya.
Conquests of Krishnadevaraya for UPSC
- In 1512, Gangaraja, the Ummatur chief, fought on the bank of the Kaveri River and lost. Krishna Deva Raya also defeated the Gajapatis of Orrisa, who occupied Nothern Andhra in 5 campaigns.
- In 1513, The Vijayanagar army laid a year-long siege to the Udayagiri Fort, routing the Gajapati Army. After the Victory of the Udayagiri fort, Krishnadevaraya and his wives Tirumala Devi & Chinnamma Devi offer prayers in Tirupati.
- The Vijayanagar army then attacked the Gajpati army at Kondaviduraju. After some siege and initial defeat, Vijayanagar Army wants to set back. But, The Prime Minister of Krishnadevaraya came to know about the secret door of the Fort. Then, they launch the attack from this secret entrance. Further, Krishnadevaraya captured Prince Virabhadra Deva.
- Kondapalli Fort was the next target of Krishnadeva. After winning this, he planned to invade Kalinga Utkal. This was the most significant military & diplomatic victory. As per the peace treaty, the river Krishna became the boundary between Vijayanagar and Odisha.
What are the Achievements of Krishnadevaraya?
- Krishnadevaraya established friendly relations with the Portuguese. In 1510, he helped establish the “Portuguese Dominion of India” in Goa.
- Further, the Portuguese supplied guns and Arabian horses to Vijayanagar.
- He also used Portuguese expertise to improve the water supply in the city of Vijayanagara. In the complicated Alliance of the empire with the five Deccan sultanates, he constantly engaged in the war.
- He kept strict control over his ministers. If a minister was caught doing something wrong, he would be punished.
- In order to increase revenues, he brought new lands under cultivation and ordered the deforestation of some areas.
- To increase irrigation a large-scale project was started, and a lot of Dams and canals were established.
- He is known to have encouraged and supported various sects and their places of worship.
- Various ambassadors like Duarte Barbose, Domingo Paes, and Fernao Nuniz wrote regarding the efficiency of administration and the prosperity of the people in the Vijayanagara Empire.
- According to Domingo Paes, Vijayanagar was the best city in the world. Further, he compared Vijaynagar Empire with Rome. Paes also wrote about the advanced irrigation technology of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Krishnadevaraya was an able statesman as well as a crafty general, the legacy of his time includes ceremonies like Dussehra and countless temples that he built and restored. We got more than two thousand epigraphs and inscriptions of Krishnadeva Raya. Further, because of his brilliant achievements and exceptional ability to maintain political stability in the Deccan, he is compared with the greatest emperor of Asia and Europe.
In 1524, Krishnadevaraya declares his son Tirumala Raya as crown prince, but the crown prince does not live long enough to carry forward his legacy, It is believed that he was poisoned to death and the murder is blamed on Timmarusu ‘s son. Krishnadevaraya blinds Tirumal and his son as punishment.
Death of Krishnadevaraya
After this, he declares his half-brother Achyuta Deva Raya as his successor. In 1529, Krishnadevaraya dies due to a serious illness, although before saying goodbye to this world, he must have got the Vijayanagara Empire, and his name was recorded in the golden pages of history.
In this, we have discussed everything about Krishnadevaraya for UPSC. This topic is very much important for UPSC Prelims and Mains exam.
Krishnadevaraya belongs to which dynasty?
Krishnadevaraya belongs to Tuluva Dynasty. He was the third king of the Tuluva Dynasty. Further, he sat on the throne on 8 August 1509 and ruled till 1529.
In which language did Krishnadevaraya write Amuktamalyada?
Krishnadevaraya writes Amuktamalyada in the Telugu Language.
How did Krishnadevaraya die?
In 1529, Krishnadevaraya dies due to a serious illness. But in the pages of history, he left a deep curse.
What are the Achievements of Krishnadevaraya?
Krishnadevaraya’s achievements include expanding the Vijayanagara Empire through military conquests, patronizing art, and literature, and promoting a strong and stable government. Further, He also built many temples, irrigation systems, and forts during his reign, and was known for his support of poets and scholars, some of whom wrote works in his praise.
Who were the Ashtadiggajas of Krishnadevaraya?
Ashtadiggajas were 8 court poets. These are Nandi Thimmana, Pingali Surana Dhurjati, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati ,Ramaraja Bhushanudu ,Tenali Rama Krishna, Ayyala-Raju Rama-Bhadrudu, and Allasani Peddana