Pulicat Lake: Facts & Location on India Map [UPSC 100%]

Welcome to this article where we will explore the fascinating world of Pulicat Lake. Located in southeastern India, Pulicat Lake is a stunning brackish water lake that boasts a rich ecosystem and mesmerizing landscapes. Join us as we uncover the lake’s unique biodiversity, including its diverse birdlife, aquatic animals, and lush wetlands.

We will also discuss the threats facing the lake and the conservation efforts in place to protect this natural treasure. Additionally, we’ll delve into the role of Pulicat Lake in supporting local livelihoods and its appeal as a tourist destination. Get ready to be captivated by the wonders of Pulicat Lake as we take you on an insightful journey through its beauty and significance.

Pulicat Lake

Pulicat Lake is a brackish water lagoon that is situated at the northern end of the Tamil Nadu coast, bordering Andhra Pradesh. It is the second-largest brackish water lagoon in India, covering an area of about 750 square kilometers.

Pulicat Lake is known for its rich biodiversity and its importance as a migratory bird habitat. It is a unique ecosystem that provides livelihood opportunities to local communities and is also a popular tourist destination.

Pulicat Lake is located on the Coromandel Coast of India, between the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The lake is about 60 kilometers north of Chennai and about 15 kilometers from the Bay of Bengal. It is a shallow lagoon with an average depth of 1.5 meters, and it is connected to the Bay of Bengal through a narrow channel.

LakePulicat Lake
LocationAndhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, India
CoordinatesApproximately 13.407°N latitude and 80.318°E longitude
TypeBrackish water lake
AreaApproximately 450 square kilometers (174 square miles)
RankingSecond-largest brackish water lake in India
Proximity to ChennaiApproximately 60 kilometers (37 miles) north of Chennai
Pulicat Lake

Important Points of Pulicat Lake

  • Pulicat Lagoon is the second largest brackish water lagoon in India, situated at the Andhra Pradesh-Tamil Nadu border in the Coromandel Region.
  • The lake is separated from the Bay of Bengal by Sriharikota Island, home to the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.
  • Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary is located within the lake and hosts a rich biodiversity of birds and aquatic life.
  • The Flamingo Festival is an annual event that promotes tourism in Pulicat Lake and Nellapattu.
  • Major inflows to the lake include Arani, Kalangi, and Swarnamukhi rivers, while the Buckingham Canal serves as a navigation channel.
  • About 96% of the lake is located in Andhra Pradesh and only 3% is in Tamil Nadu.

Map & Location of Pulicat Lake

Pulicat Lake is located in the southeastern part of India, primarily between the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It is the second-largest brackish water lake in India and covers an area of approximately 450 square kilometers (174 square miles).

The lake is situated about 60 kilometers (37 miles) north of Chennai, the capital city of Tamil Nadu. The precise coordinates of Pulicat Lake are approximately 13.407°N latitude and 80.318°E longitude.

Pulicat Lake in India Map - State

Biodiversity of Pulicat Lake

Pulicat Lake is a unique and diverse ecosystem that supports a rich biodiversity of aquatic plants and animals:

1. Birdlife

Lake is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with more than 150 species of birds recorded in the area. The lake is home to several migratory birds such as flamingos, pelicans, storks, and herons. The lake also supports a large population of resident water birds such as ducks, coots, and egrets. The lake is an important breeding and feeding ground for these birds, and it provides them with a safe haven during their migration.

2. Fish and Aquatic Animals

Pulicat Lake is home to over 25 species of fish, including the popular Pulicat pearl spot (Etroplus Suratensis). The lake also supports a variety of aquatic animals such as crabs, prawns, and turtles. These animals play a vital role in maintaining the lake’s ecosystem and are an essential food source for the local communities.

3. Aquatic Plants

The lake is surrounded by dense vegetation, and several species of aquatic plants such as water hyacinth, water lily, and lotus thrive in the lake. These plants provide shelter and breeding grounds for many aquatic animals, and they also help to purify the water.

4. Wetlands

The lake is surrounded by several wetlands, which are important habitats for many species of birds and animals. The wetlands provide a safe haven for breeding and nesting, and they also serve as feeding grounds for several migratory bird species.

5. Endangered Species

This Lake is home to several endangered species such as the smooth-coated otter and the green sea turtle. These species are protected under the Wildlife Protection Act of India, and efforts are being made to conserve their habitats in the lake.

Overall, the rich biodiversity of Pulicat Lake is a testament to the importance of preserving and conserving our natural resources.

Threats & Conservation Efforts

Despite its ecological significance, Pulicat Lake is facing several threats. One of the biggest threats to the lake is pollution, both from industrial activities and domestic sewage.

The lake is also threatened by the encroachment of its banks by local communities and the illegal mining of sand. The rapid development of aquaculture and fishing activities in the lake is also contributing to the degradation of its ecosystem.

To conserve the rich biodiversity of Pulicat Lake, several initiatives have been taken by the government and non-governmental organizations. The Pulicat Lake Conservation and Management Authority (PLCMA) was established in 2005 to coordinate conservation efforts in the lake.

The authority is responsible for implementing various conservation measures such as monitoring water quality, preventing pollution, and regulating fishing and aquaculture activities.

Tourism in Pulicat Lake

This is a popular tourist destination, especially for bird watchers and nature lovers. The lake offers a unique opportunity to observe migratory birds in their natural habitat. Several eco-tourism initiatives have been launched to promote responsible tourism in the area.

The Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary, which covers an area of 500 square kilometers, is a major attraction for tourists. The sanctuary is home to several species of birds, and visitors can take a boat ride to observe the birds from a safe distance.


It is also an important source of livelihood for local communities. Fishing and aquaculture are the major sources of income for many families living in the area. The lake is known for its production of the Pulicat pearl spot, which is a popular fish variety in the region. The lake also supports several small-scale industries such as salt production and shell crafts.

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Pulicat Lake is a unique ecosystem that provides ecological, economic, and social benefits to the region. However, it is facing several threats, and urgent conservation measures are needed to protect its rich biodiversity.

The government and non-governmental organizations must work together to prevent pollution, regulate fishing and aquaculture activities, and promote responsible tourism in the area. By taking these measures, we can ensure the sustainable management of this important natural resource.

Thank You!

Where is Pulicat Lake located?

Pulicat Lake is located in the southeastern part of India, primarily spanning the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

What is the size of Pulicat Lake?

Pulicat Lake covers an area of approximately 450 square kilometers (174 square miles).

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