If you are searching for Sangam Age for UPSC, you are at the right place. This topic is significant for the UPSC exam. You will learn about the Literature, Administration, Society, Religion & Significance of the Sangam Age for UPSC.
Sangam Age for UPSC
Sangam Age is considered to be the beginning of the historical period in southern India, because before this the megalithic period was going on here, which was a part of the prehistoric period. This region lies below the area of rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra. The timeline of the Sangam period is considered to be between the 3rd century B.C. & 3rd century A.D.
Why this period is called as Sangam Period?
This period is named Sangam because of the Sangam Assemblies that took place here. Sangam Assemblies were organized under the patronage of the Pandya Kings of Madurai. Further, many great scholars used to assemble there and did the compilation of Sangam Literature. In addition, the compilation of Sangam age literature was in the form of an anthology, which is considered to be a specimen of Dravidian literature.
According to Tamil legends, three Sangams were organized:
- The first Sangam was organized in Madurai, there is no literary work available.
- The second Sangam was organized in Kapadapuram, only one literary work is available named “Tolkappiyam”.
- The third Sangam was also organized in Madurai, several literary works are available that help to reconstruct the history of the Sangam Age.
Sangam Literature for UPSC
Sangam Literature was compiled around 300-600 A.D. They are divided into 2 groups: Narrative text & Didactic text, which are called Melkannakku & Kilkanakku respectively. Melkannakku contains 18 major works and contains 18 minor works. All Sangam Literature contains:
- Epics: Silappathikaram & Manimegalai
Tolkappiyam: Tolkappiyam was written by Tolkappiyar, it is considered to be the earliest of all Tamil literary works. Although it is about Tamil Grammar, it gives us a lot of information about the social and political condition of the Sangam Dynasty.
Ettutogai: These are eight anthologies i.e. eight works:
Pattuppattu: Contains 10 Idylls:
Pathinenkilkanakku: Pathinenkilkanakku is based on ethics and morals Thirukkural written by Thiruvalluvar is the most important among 18 works collection.
Silappathikaram & Manimegalai: Silappathikaram is considered to be the brightest gem of Tamil literature written around the 6th century A.D. by Elango Adigal. Manimegalai was written by Sittalai Sattanar who was a grain merchant.
Apart from Sangam literature, we also have some other sources which give us information about Sangam Age. There are various sources that give details about the Sangam period. For example, Megasthenes, Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy are Greek writers, who gave us information about the Sangam age. Further, Ashokan inscriptions give evidence of the presence of Chera, Chola, and Pandya in the south of India.
Political History of Sangam Age for UPSC
Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas were the 3 dynasties who ruled south India during the Sangam age.
|Chera Dynasty||Chola Dynasty||Pandya Dynasty|
|Founder||Uthiyan Cheralathan||Vijayalaya||Maravarman Sundara I|
Central Kerala and the Northern region of Tamilnadu were controlled by Chera Dynasty and their capital was Vanji. They had full control of Tondi & Muziris. Further, Romans had trade relations with Cheras, they also built Augustus’ temple in Chera Kingdom. Chera flag contains a symbol of a Bow & Arrow.
Senguttuvan was the most important ruler of the Chera Kingdom. He was also known as Red Chera. Further, their Himalayan expedition is mentioned in the epic Silapathikaram. Senguttuvan was the first king to send an embassy from south India to china.
The Chola Dynasty controlled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu, and their capital was Uraiyur. Kaveripumpattinam was the major port of Cholas. The Chola flag contains a symbol of a Tiger.
Karikala was a famous king and his description of life and military conquests is founded in Pattanappalai. They defeated Cheras, Pandyas,& minor chieftain’s confederacy in the Battle of Venni. The military achievements of Karikala made them overload the Tamil region. Further, is known as the founder of Puhar port city.
Pandya Dynasty ruled from Madurai. Korkai was their main port famous for pearl fishery. The Pandya flag contains a symbol of a Fish. Further, they also patronized Tamil Sangams. Their power declined after the Kalabhras tribe invasion, but at the end of the 6th century, they rose again.
Administration of Sangam Age for UPSC
- There was a hereditary monarchy during the Sangam period & all dynasties have their royal emblems.
- Military administration was efficiently organized.
- Land revenue was the chief source of state income.
- Roads & Highways were maintained, and Guards were also deployed to stop robberies.
|Council of Ministers||Amaichar|
Also Read: Vijayanagara Empire for UPSC
Sangam Society during Sangam Age for UPSC
If we talk about Sangam Society, five land divisions & four types of caste are mentioned in Tolkappiyam.
Land divisions during Sangam Age for UPSC:
- Kurinji (Hilly Tracks)
- Mullai (Pastoral Land)
- Marudam (Agriculture Land)
- Neydal (Coastal Land)
- Palai (Desert Land)
Types of Castes during Sangam Age for UPSC:
- Arasar (Ruling Class)
- Anthanar (Political/Religious)
- Vanigar (Trade & Commerce)
- Vellalar (Agriculturist)
Condition of Women during Sangam Age for UPSC:
- During the Sangam period, women were treated with respect and allowed to perform intellectual activities.
- Women had a right to choose their life partner.
- Many female poets contributed to Sangam Literature.
- Widows had a miserable life, and the practice of Sati was also seen.
Religion during Sangam Age for UPSC
Following are the important points of the Religion of Sangam Age for UPSC:
- Lord Murugan was the primary deity of the Sangam Period.
- Various festivals related to Lord Murugan were also seen.
- Some other gods were Vishnu, Indira, Varuna, and Korravai.
- Hero stones were worshipped and erected in memory of Valore shown by the warriors.
The economy of the Sangam Age for UPSC
- Agriculture was the main occupation & Handicraft industry was also the part of occupation during Sangam Period.
- There was a high demand for their handicrafts, and Uraiyur’s cotton cloths were in demand in the western world.
- Puhar port was an important center for foreign trade.
- Gold coins issued by roman emperors were found in various parts of Tamil Nadu, which shows flourishing trade.
- The major export items in the Sangam age were cotton Fabrics, Spices, & Precious Stones.
- Import items were Horses, Gold, and Sweet Wine.
The decline of the Sangam age occurs at the end of the 3rd Century. After the Sangam Period, Kalabhras occupied Tamil country. Historians called this period the interregnum or Dark Age. Sungam Age declined, but the legacy stays, the development of Dravidian languages, the foundation of south Indian political, socio-cultural & economic life founded the Sangam age.
In this, we have discussed everything about Sangam Age for UPSC. This topic is very much important for UPSC.
Who ruled the Sangam dynasty?
Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas were the 3 dynasties who ruled south India during the Sangam Period.
Why Sangam Age is so-called?
This period is named Sangam because of the Sangam Assemblies that took place here. Sangam Assemblies were organized under the patronage of the Pandya Kings of Madurai. Further, many great scholars used to assemble there and did the compilation of Sangam Literature.
What is Sangam literature?
Sangam Literature was compiled around 300-600 A.D. They are divided into 2 groups: Narrative text & Didactic text, which are called Melkannakku & Kilkanakku respectively. Melkannakku contains 18 major works and contains 18 minor works.